Original Scientific Paper                                                      UDC: 338.488.2:640.412


 doi: 10.5937/menhottur2301067G


The quality of hotel service as a factor of achieving loyalty among visitors

Tamara Gajić1, Dragan Vukolić2, Miloš Zrnić3[*], Dávid Lóránt Dénes4


1 Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić, SASA, Belgrade, Serbia; South Ural State   University, Institute of Sport, Tourism and Service, Chelyabinsk, Russia

2  University of Business Studies, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

3  Academy of Applied Studies, The College of Hotel Management, Belgrade, Serbia

4 John von Neumann University, Faculty of Economics and Business, Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Kecskemét, Hungary; Eötvös Lóránd University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Savaria University Centre, Savaria Department of Business Economics, Szombathely, Hungary; Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Faculty of Central European Studies, Department of Tourism, Nitra, Slovakia


Abstract: The quality of service, as well as the impact of hotel business on achieving loyalty among hotel visitors, has always been a topic of research in the world. The aim of this research was to determine the level of service quality achieved in hotels at Mount Zlatibor, as well as whether quality factors influence the creation of loyalty among hotel visitors. The results of multiple regression analysis showed an evident influence of both tangible and intangible quality factors on loyalty. However, a slightly greater degree of influence of intangible factor was noted. Research can have theoretical and practical importance, as a complement to existing research, as well as for creating a hotel’s business strategy.


Keywords: service quality, loyalty, hotel service

JEL classification: O14, L83, Z32


Kvalitet hotelske usluge kao faktor postizanja lojalnosti posetilaca


Sažetak: Kvalitet usluge, kao i uticaj hotelskog poslovanja na postizanje lojalnosti među posetiocima hotela, oduvek je bila tema istraživanja u svetu. Istraživanje je imalo za cilj da utvrdi nivo kvaliteta usluga koji se postiže u hotelima na Zlatiboru, kao i da li faktori kvaliteta utiču na stvaranje lojalnosti kod posetilaca hotela. Rezultati višestruke regresione analize pokazali su evidentan uticaj oba faktora kvaliteta (materijalni i nematerijalni faktori) na lojalnost, s tim što je utvrđen nešto veći stepen uticaja nematerijalnog faktora. Istraživanja mogu imati teorijski i praktični značaj, kao dopuna postojećim istraživanjima, kao i za kreiranje poslovne strategije hotela.


Klјučne reči: kvalitet usluge, lojalnost, hotelska usluga

JEL klasifikacija: O14, L83, Z32

1. Introduction


A very important aspect of business in tourism and hotel industry is the achievement of quality service of all material and immaterial elements (Ahmad et al., 2018). The creation of trust among consumers is based on meeting the demands of tourists, and this can only be achieved with a quality offer (Amin et al., 2013). Serbia is known for its natural and anthropogenic resources, which from year to year are more and more adapted to the visits of domestic and foreign tourists. Mount Zlatibor, as a tourist center, is distinguished by the successful provision of tourist and hospitality services, especially if we take into account that the business is characterized by a seasonal character (Seočanac & Sekulić, 2020; Vukolić et al., 2021). Precisely for the reason of prominent seasonality at Zlatibor, the study of the quality of services of hotel facilities is of great importance for strategic, continuous and long-term business and survival on the market (Gajić et al., 2018; Hayati & Novitasari, 2017). Sivakumar et al. (2014) in their research point out that quality service contributes to the creation of loyal visitors to hotel facilities and increases the possibility of their returning to the same facilities or destination. Moreover, the same authors claim that every hotel company can achieve competitiveness through quality service (Hossain, 2012). Total quality includes all aspects of the service provided to hotel visitors (Ho et al., 2013). If the dimension of service quality is not in accordance with the expectations of the guests, then a high degree of dissatisfaction of the visitors is definitely expected. Modern business and innovations impose new trends in the marketing of hotel facilities, and they strive to accept new trends in order to attract visitors, and to create loyal customers with quality service (Nurittamont, 2021). The views on the achieved quality of service, as well as the impact on the creation of loyalty are different depending on the author’s perception and the area of research (Majid et al., 2018; Zrnić et al., 2021). Although most authors agree on the fact that quality service dictates loyalty, there are certain opposing theories claiming that quality is still an overrated category (Anabila et al., 2022).

Based on the research problem, as well as the researched literature on similar issues, the authors conducted a survey in order to determine the current quality of the offer in three hotels at Zlatibor, i.e. the Mona, Hotel Olymp and Hotel Tornik. The aim of the current research was determining the influence of certain quality factors on loyalty. Similar research was conducted by Akbaba (2006), and the authors used a modified questionnaire, taking questions related to quality, and making small changes during the translation into the Serbian language in order to include quality. Descriptive statistical analysis determined the average ratings for each item. Then, multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of the obtained factors on the criterion variable loyalty. The results of the multiple regression analysis showed an evident influence of both quality factors on loyalty, i.e. material and non-material ones. However, the results point to intangible factors as those positively and directly influencing loyalty to a greater extent.

Research has multifaceted significance, primarily in determining the level of quality of the hotel offer at Zlatibor. The results reached by the authors can certainly serve as a basis for a larger-scale research on the same issue. Also, by pointing out certain business shortcomings, it will be possible to influence the future business of hotel facilities in the direction of providing a better service, and therefore overcoming strong competition in the modern market.






2. Literature review


Modern consumers have increasing demands in terms of quality service, which further dictates the creation of loyalty and the repeated return to visitors (Gajić et al., 2019). In order to achieve long-term business and competitive advantage, satisfied guests are needed in the hotel industry (Nair & Choudhary, 2016). The quality of hotel service is becoming an indispensable segment in business on the modern market, and only a quality product can win over loyal visitors and ensure their return (Jasinskas et al., 2016). On the other hand, Arbelo-Perez et al. (2017) indicate that quality hotel service, provided in an adequate manner, can be considered a factor in attracting visitors, whose expectations will be met, and thus the gap between the expected and provided service will be reduced (Sharma & Srivastava, 2018). The main task of the hotel is to provide the highest quality service that visitors will remember and pass on as their positive experience (Gaunker & Gaonkar, 2021). Research shows that constant monitoring of quality from the beginning of service provision to the actual delivery to the visitor creates sure loyalty (Gajić et al., 2020). When the complete satisfaction of hotel visitors with quality service is achieved, there is a high probability of creating loyal visitors who will pass on their satisfaction to other potential visitors (Nair & Choudhary, 2016). It is certainly the promotion of the name and reputation of the hotel facility, and a way to beat the competition in the domestic and foreign markets (Amin et al., 2013). Quality standards are certainly elements of meeting needs and high quality long-term business (Duman et al., 2019). As for the quality elements of a hotel service, these are most often material and immaterial elements of quality (Benko et al., 2022; Getty & Thompson, 1994; Kovač-Žnideršić et al., 2008). The material elements include all types of services related to the comfort of accommodation, the comfort and appearance of rooms, the entire interior and everything that is tangible and visible to a visitor during his stay at a hotel (Dabholkar et al., 2000; Dávid et al., 2003; Novotny et al., 2015). The non-material elements of the service also have a very important influence on the visitors satisfaction, as well as on creating loyalty to returning to the hotel. Material elements of quality refer to service staff and interpersonal relations, more precisely the interaction of service providers with visitors (Alreahi et al., 2023a; 2023b; Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000).

Quality is the primary task of the business of every hotel, and the service that is provided with all the aspects of quality, undoubtedly creates future loyal visitors, which potentially leads to the loyalty of hotel services users (Steiger, 2011; Varley & Medwey, 2011). The provision of the best possible service by the hotel enables the achievement of a competitive advantage, with the quality not being reduced in relation to the business season and similar limiting factors (Bello & Bello, 2017). In many cases, it is not possible to achieve the satisfaction of visitors, primarily because of the lack of quality service provided, and as a result of comparing the expected and received service, mistrust is created on the part of visitors, i.e. disappointment among visitors and the decision not to return to the same hotel (Kandampully et al., 2015; Ismail & Yunan, 2016). The assessment of hotel service quality, before and after its use, contributes to the assessment of the size of the gap between the expected and received service (Berezan et al., 2013; Sharma, 2014). Chen (2015) asserts that visitor loyalty is the most important segment of research in business, and that this type of research in the hotel market is a holistic approach. Based on such an approach, it is possible to expect the return of visitors (Mason et al., 2006).

Creating satisfied and therefore loyal visitors who will most likely return to the same hotel is one of the most important tasks in hotel business research (Saleem & Raja, 2014). Gajić et al. (2020) have established that the quality of hotel service in mountain centers in the Republic of Serbia is at a satisfactory level, maintaining that a high level of loyalty among visitors can be expected. A similar survey was conducted by Duglio and Beltramo (2014), who found that achieving excellence in hotel service quality is the most important segment in long-term business. In their research, they included 372 visitors to hotel facilities in the Piedmont region. Quality service must be provided regardless of the size of the facility, as confirmed by Scott et al. (2007), investigating the quality of lodging services in the Canadian Rockies. Moreover, they arrived at results that confirm the loyalty of visitors and their return. Banki et al. (2014), on a total sample of 217 visitors to Obudu Mountain Resort, confirmed the inextricable link between loyalty and visitor return.

In this research, the authors started from the following hypotheses:

H1: The quality of the existing service is at a satisfactory level.

H2: Material and non-material elements of quality affect the loyalty of visitors.


3. Methodology


Sample, operationalization and measuring model


The questionnaire was distributed to hotel visitors on a random basis, in th period January - April 2022. Out of 700 distributed questionnaires, only 540 completely filled questionnaires were analysed. To collect primary data, a modified questionnaire from Akbaba (2006) was used to examine the attitudes and opinions of guests about the quality of services in three hotels at Zlatibor: hotel Mona (228 questionnaires), Olymp (106 questionnaires) and Tornik (206 questionnaires). The questionnaire consisted of three parts with a total of 20 questions, and the parts were devoted to examining the quality of material service, immaterial service and general satisfaction of visitors. A total of ten items from the questionnaire described the material elements of hotel service, seven items looked into the non-material ones and three items related to the loyalty of hotel visitors.

Data on the sociodemographic structure of respondents are as follows: a total of 18.5% are aged 18 to 25, followed by 40% aged 26 to 40 and 41.5% older than 41. Then, there are a total of 56.2% of respondents with university education, 38.9% with high school education and 4.9% with MSc and PhD degrees. In the sample of the total number of respondents, 32.5% have a monthly salary below 500 euros, 51.1% from 500 to 1,000 euros, while 16.4% earn above 1,000 euros. A five-point Likert scale was used (1 – strongly disagree, 5 – strongly agree). Data analysis was performed using the statistical program IBM SPSS 23.00 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS 23.00). Arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated for each element through descriptive statistical analysis. For each item, reliability was determined using Cronbachs alpha analysis, and it was shown that each statement is internally consistent. Determining the influence of factors on loyalty was done using multiple regression analysis.


4. Results and discussion


Table 1 shows the results of descriptive statistical analysis. When looking at the average ratings of the material elements, it can be seen that the highest average rating is carried by the items Appearance of accommodation m= 4.1, followed by The presence of gyms and swimming pools and spa centers m= 4.02. The lowest graded element is The appearance of the restaurant with an average grade of m=2.22. The quality of the equipment, The position of the hotel, The quality of food and drinks were rated above 3, which is a satisfactory rating.




Table 1: Descriptive values of each item





Material elements

The position of the hotel



Appearance of the hotel



Appearance of accommodation



Quality of equipment in the hotel



Accommodation comfort



Accommodation equipment with additional content



Appearance of the restaurant



Quality of food and drinks



The presence of gyms and swimming pools and spa centers



Other additional hotel facilities



Non-material elements

Quality of staff



The quality of the manager’s work



Courtesy of the employees



Quality of information service



Reception quality



Easy booking method



The possibility of changing the room




Overall loyalty



Positive attitude about the hotel



Return to the hotel again



            *m – arithmetic mean; *sd – standard deviation

            Source: Authors’ research


Regarding non-material elements, the item of Reception quality (m=3.9) has the highest average score, followed by Quality of staff (m=3.8) and The possibility of changing the room (m=3.5). The lowest grade in this group of elements belonged to the item Easy booking method (m=3.03). Loyalty elements were assessed with an average score above three, which is considered a good average score based on the given scale. Given that most of the items related to quality were rated with a good average rating, it can be said that the first hypothesis H1 is confirmed: The quality of the existing service is at a satisfactory level.

The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy was used to measure the suitability of the data for factor analysis. Given that the obtained values are satisfactory (KMO =0.916; X2=5158.8; df=190; p=0.00), further EFA analysis was undertaken (Tucker & MacCallum, 1997). With promax rotation EFA analysis, three factors were identified based on 20 characteristics (Table 2).





Table 2: Rationalization of the number of items through promax rotation (factor loading)


Factor Loading





Quality of staff




The quality of the manager’s work




Courtesy of the employees




Quality of information service




Other additional hotel facilities




Reception quality




Appearance of the hotel




Quality of equipment in the hotel




Accommodation equipment with additional content




The presence of gyms and swimming pools and spa centers




Appearance of the restaurant




Appearance of accommodation




Accommodation comfort




The position of the hotel




Quality of food and drinks




Return to the hotel again




Overall loyalty




The possibility of changing the room




Positive attitude about the hotel




Easy booking method




Source: Authors’ research


Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency of he questionnaire, where all values above 0.7 were accepted as very good borderline values (Tucker & MacCallum, 1997) (Table 3).


Table 3: Descriptive values and reliability for all factors


Cronbach’s alpha

Arithmetic mean

Standard deviation

Material elements




Non.material elements








Source: Authors’ research


Exploratory factor analysis extracted exactly three factors, i.e. material elements (10 questions), intangible elements (7 questions). Three questions are related to loyalty, and values were also calculated for the loyalty factor (Table 3). All values are given in Table 3. Factor analysis starts from measures of connection between variables, correlation coefficients or covariance. Due to the large number of variables and their coefficients, a deeper and clearer insight into the laws and structure of the studied phenomena is difficult. It serves to check the used questionnaire and reduce the number of variables, i.e their grouping.

Table 4 shows that the percentage of explained variance is 57%, while the first factor had the highest saturation (38.3%), the second factor had a saturation of 11.8%, while the third factor had a saturation of 6.4%.



Table 4: The results of exploratory factor analysis


Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadingsa


% of Variance

 Cumulative %

















Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis

Source: Authors’ research


Multiple regression analysis examines the dependence of one phenomenon over two or more independent phenomena. Regression analysis measures the influence of all factors on the criterion variable Loyalty (Table 5).


Table 5: Impact of material and non-material factors on guest loyalty


Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients




Std. Error









Material elements






Non-material elements






a. Dependent Variable: Loyalty, p<0.01

Source: Authors’ research


The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate a significant partial contribution and a statistically significant influence of both factors on the criterion variable Loyalty: material elements (material elements – ß =0.250, p=0.00, t= 5.914; non-material elements ß=0.593, =0.00, t=14.030). The results show that both material and non-material elements have influence on loyalty, with the observation that non-material elements have a stronger impact than material ones. This confirms the hypothesis H2.


5. Conclusion with future implications and limitations


One of the key problems of establishing quality in hotels in Serbia is certainly the lack or insufficient application of existing standards. The quality of service is certainly an important factor that influences the creation of a positive image of tourists about a hotel and a destination. In this way, if a high-quality service is achieved, it is possible to achieve a high degree of loyalty among visitors, and therefore the possibility of returning to the same hotel.

The primary task was to determine the influence of the quality factor on the creation of loyalty among visitors to hotels at Zlatibor. The authors conducted field research in three hotels at Zlatibor, on a total sample of 540 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the grades for each item (Akbaba, 2006), as well as for all factors obtained by factor analysis. The existence of three factors was determined, one of which served as a criterion variable – loyalty. A high degree of reliability was achieved based on the reliability analysis. After that, the authors performed a multiple regression analysis to see the impact of tangible and intangible elements on visitor loyalty. The set hypotheses were confirmed and it was established that all factors had a partial direct and positive influence on the loyalty criterion.

The operation of hotels in the mountains of the Republic of Serbia has a pronounced seasonality and is therefore specific, and it is necessary to examine the level of quality of the offer in order to ensure continuity in operation.

Since the literature on hotel business at the mountains of Serbia is very scarce, the significance of the research is reflected in contribution to the existing literature. Moreover, the practical implications of the research are reflected in the use of the obtained results for future research, as well as in the application in hotel business management, in order to improve the offer and achieve long-term positive business.  The results of the research can serve as a good strategic tool for planning the development of quality services in the hotels where the research was carried out. Additionally, managers can correct operations and minimize mistakes by looking at the results and answers of respondents, and to reduce costs. By affecting the increase in the quality of the offer, it will achieve a certain degree of loyalty among visitors.

The limitations of the research are primarily reflected in non-cooperation of the respondents with the researchers. The fear of the pandemic is still present, but visitors also give socially desirable answers. In addition, one of the limiting circumstances of the research is the fact that the respondents are only domestic visitors. Foreign respondents mostly refused to cooperate, and those who participated did not give complete answers in the questionnaire. Respondents with an older age structure very often gave socially desirable answers.


Conflict of interest


The authors declare no conflict of interest.




1.         Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmad, N., & Papastathopoulos, A. (2018). Measuring service quality and customer satisfaction of the small-and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs) industry: Lessons from United Arab Emirates (UAE). Tourism Review, 74(1), 349–370.  https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-10-2017-0160

2.         Akbaba, A. (2006). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(2), 170–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2005.08.006

3.         Alreahi, M., Bujdosó, Z., Dávid, L. D., & Gyenge, B. (2023a). Green supply chain management in hotel industry: A systematic review. Sustainability, 15, 5622. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15075622

4.         Alreahi, M., Bujdosó, Z., Kabil, M., Akaak, A., Benkó, K. F., Setioningtyas, W. P., & Dávid, L. D. (2023b). Green human resources management in the hotel industry: A systematic review. Sustainability, 15, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010099

5.         Amin, M., Yahya, Z., Ismayatim, W. F. A., Nasharuddin, S. Z., & Kassim, E. (2013). Service quality dimension and customer satisfaction: An empirical study in the Malaysian hotel industry. Services Marketing Quarterly, 34(2), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2013.770665

6.         Anabila, P., Ameyibor, L. E. K., Allan, M. M., & Alomenu, C. (2022). Service quality and customer loyalty in Ghana’s hotel industry: The mediation effects of satisfaction and delight. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 23(3), 748–770. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.538

7.         Arbelo-Pérez, M., Arbelo, A., & Pérez-Gómez, P. (2017). Impact of quality on estimations of hot moderating role of affective destination image. Journal of Destination Marketing, 23(3), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2015.08.002

8.         Banki, M. B., Ismail, H. Z., & Dalil, M. (2014). Relationship between tourists satisfaction and behavioural intention: Evidence from Obudu mountain resort. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(4), 47–60.

9.         Bello, Y. O., & Bello, M. B. (2017). Employees’ empowerment, service quality and customers’ satisfaction in hotel industry. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(4), 1001–1019.

10.      Benkő, B., Dávid, L., & Farkas, T. (2022). Opportunities for the development of innovation among hotels in northern Hungary. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 40(1), 267–273. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.40132-828

11.      Berezan, O., Raab, C., Yoo, M., & Love, C. (2013). Sustainable hotel practices and nationality: The impact on guest satisfaction and guest intention to return. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 227–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.03.010

12.      Chen, R. J. (2015). From sustainability to customer loyalty: A case of full service hotels’ guests. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 261–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.08.007

13.      Dabholkar, P. A., Shepherd, C. D., & Thorpe, D. I. (2000). A Comprehensive framework for service quality: An investigation of critical conceptual and measurement issues through a longitudinal study. Journal of Retailing, 76, 139173.

14.      Dávid L., Bujdosó, Z., & Patkós Cs. (2003). A turizmus hatásai és jelentősége a területfejlesztésben. [The impact and importance of tourism in territorial development]. In I. Süli-Zakar (Ed.), A terület- és településfejlesztés alapjai [Basics of spatial and territorial development] (pp. 433–453). Dialóg Campus Kiadó, Budapest, Pécs, Hungary.

15.      Duglio, S., & Beltramo, R. (2014). Quality assessment in the Italian mountain huts. European Journal of Tourism Research, 8(1), 115–142. https://doi.org/10.54055/ejtr.v8i.154

16.      Duman, F., Ozer, O., Koseoglu, M., Altin, M., & Okumus, F. (2019). Does quality standards certification truly matter on operational and business performances of firms? Evidence from resort hotels. European Journal of Tourism Research, 23, 142–155. https://doi.org/10.54055/ejtr.v23i.394

17.      Gajić, T., Petrović, M. D., Radovanović, M. M., Tretiakova, T. N., & Syromiatnikova, J. A. (2020). Possibilities of turning passive rural areas into tourist attractions through attained service quality. European Countryside, 12(2), 179–192. https://doi.org/10.2478/euco-2020-0010

18.      Gajić, T., Vujko, A., Petrović, M. D., Mrkša, M., & Penić, M. (2018). Examination of regional disparity in the level of tourist offer in rural clusters of Serbia. Economics of Agriculture, 65(3), 911–927. https://doi.org/10.5937/ekoPolj1803911G

19.      Gajić, T., Vujko, A., Tretiakova, T. N., Petrović, M. D., Radovanović, M., & Vuković, D. (2019). Evaluation of service quality based on rural households’ visitors – Serbian case study. The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Tourism, 11(2), 4–20.

20.      Gaunker, V. S. P., & Gaonkar, R. S. P. (2021). Service quality – A case study on selected hotels in Goa. Advances in Production and Industrial Engineering, pp. 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-5519-0_12

21.      Getty, J. M., & Thompson, K. N. (1994). A procedure for scaling perceptions of lodging quality. Journal of Hospitality Research, 18(2), 75–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809401800206

22.      Hayati, N., & Novitasari, D. (2017). An analysis of tourism service quality toward customer satisfaction (study on tourists in Indonesia travel destinations to Bali). International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management, 8(2), 9–20.

23.      Ho, L. H., Peng, T. F., Feng, S. Y., & Yen, T. M. (2013). Integration of Kanos model and SERVQUAL for enhancing standard hotel customer satisfaction. African Journal of Business Management, 7(23), 2257–2265. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM11.1421

24.      Hossain, M. J. (2012). Impact of service quality on customer satisfaction: A case of tourism industry in Bangladesh. International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing, 2(2), 1–25.

25.      Ismail, A., & Yunan, Y. M. (2016). Service quality as a predictor of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. LogForum, 12(4), 269–283. https://doi.org/10.17270/J.LOG.2016.4.7

26.      Jasinskas, E., Streimikiene, D., Svagzdiene, B., & Simanavicius, A. (2016). Impact of hotel service quality on the loyalty of customers. Economic Research, 29(1), 559–572. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2016.1177465

27.      Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: The role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Cotemporary Hospitality Management, 12, 346351. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110010342559

28.      Kandampully, J., Zhang, T. C., & Bilgihan, A. (2015). Customer loyalty: A review and future directions with a special focus on the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 379–414. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-03-2014-0151

29.      Kovač-Žnideršić, R., Marić, D., Grubor, А., & Salai, S. (2008). Word of mouth and opinion leadership. Marketing, 39(4), 133–138.

30.      Majid, M. A. A., Samsudin, A., Noorkhizan, M. H. I., Zaki, M. I. M., & Bakar, A. M. F. A. (2018). Service quality, food quality, image and customer loyalty: An empirical study at a hotel restaurant. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(10), 1432–1446. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i10/5310

31.      Mason, D. D., Tideswell, C., & Roberts, E. (2006). Guest perceptions of hotel loyalty. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 30(2), 191–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i10/5310

32.      Nair, G., & Choudhary, N. (2016). The impact of service quality on business performance in Qatar-based hotels: An empirical study. The Journal of Hospitality Financial Management, 24(1), 47–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/10913211.2016.1170559

33.      Novotny, A., David, L., Csafor, H. (2015). Applying RFID technology in the retail industry – benefits and concerns from the consumer’s perspective. Amfiteatru Economic17(39), 615–631.

34.      Nurittamont, W. (2021). Understanding service quality and service loyalty: An empirical study of mobile phone network service in the central region of Thailand. WEI International Academic Conference, Vienna, Austria.

35.      Saleem, H., & Raja, N. S. (2014). The impact of service quality on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and brand image: Evidence from hotel industry of Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 19(5), 706–711. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.19.5.21018

36.      Scott, D., Jones, B., & Konopek, J. (2007). Implications of climate and environmental change for nature-based tourism in Canadian Rocky Mountains: A case study of Waterton Lakes National Park. Tourism Management, 28, 570–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.04.020

37.      Seočanac, M., & Sekulić, D. (2020). Satisfaction with the service quality in Serbian mountain hotels: Analysis of reviews on Booking.com. Marketing, 51(2), 108–120. https://doi.org/10.5937/markt2002108S

38.      Sharma, C. (2014). A service quality model applied on Indian hotel industry to measure the level of customer satisfaction. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(3), 480–485.

39.      Sharma, S., & Srivastava, S. (2018). Relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in hotel industry. TRJ Tourism Research Journal, 2(1), 42–49.

40.      Sivakumar, K., Li, M., & Dong, B. (2014). Service quality: The impact of frequency, timing, proximity, and sequence of failures and delights. Journal of Marketing, 78(1), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.12.0527

41.      Steiger, R. (2011). The impact of snow scarcity on ski tourism: An analysis of the record warm season 2006/2007 in Tyrol (Austria). Tourism Review, 66(3), 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1108/16605371111175285

42.      Tucker, L. R., & MacCallum, R. C. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis. Department of Psychology, University of Illinois.

43.      Varley, P., & Medway, D. (2011). Ecosophy and tourism: Rethinking a mountain resort. Tourism Management, 32, 902–911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.08.005

44.      Vukolić, D., Gajić, T., & Bugarčić, J. (2021). Guest satisfaction with the offer of European international dishes and products in Serbian restaurants. Turističko poslovanje, 28, 27–38. https://doi.org/10.5937/turpos0-33646

45.      Zrnić, M., Brdar, I., & Kilibarda, N. (2021). The importance of traditional food quality-the viewpoint of the tourism. Scientific Journal Meat Technology, 62(1), 69–76. https://doi.org/10.5937/turpos0-40569





















Received: 26 January 2023; Revised: 27 March 2023; Accepted: 31 May 2023

* milos.zrnic@vhs.edu.rs

CC BY This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).